While the practice of mindfulness has been gaining tremendous popularity in corporate America due to its positive effects on the effectiveness of leaders, recent research has revealed that there are more substantial benefits one can reap from the original form of mindfulness that is based on the Supernormal Eightfold Way found in early Buddhist teachings (without religious aspects), in which the contemporary form of mindfulness is only the 7th step of the 8 steps of the process. Research has found that a person who practices the original mindfulness (more suitably termed “introspection”) develops selfless behavior and self-reflection, and adheres to a value system (Hewawasam, 2022). So, in terms of Buddhist teachings, the values should direct an individual towards the goal of a tranquil mind and a relaxed body leading to increased effectiveness of a leader through multiple facets, and the sense of values is integrated in the Supernormal Eightfold Way since values are the driving force towards the tranquil mind and relaxed body.
As many have observed and experienced, whether or not a business will prosper, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic, depends on leaders with the necessary values guiding their lives. When problems such as a pandemic arise, such leaders need to empathize and be understanding of the hardships employees experience in and outside of work to receive the best possible output for the business. Leaders’ decisions, their character, and their sense of values determine the ability of leaders to be flexible as necessary in the new work environment.
In such an environment where a leader’s value-driven character and decision-making skills play critical roles, the popular narrow concept of mindfulness can have detrimental outcomes as it has the potential to steer a practitioner clear of attending to the required elements of a leader. In fact, some have claimed that the currently popular form of mindfulness can make people selfish.
However, as research indicates, a leader practicing introspection (the original form of mindfulness) based on the Supernormal Eightfold Way will have the value-driven character and decision-making skills enhanced while benefiting from the full potential of harmonious attention/mindfulness (Satipatthāna) and eventually reaching harmonious equilibrium (Samadhi) (Hewawasam, 2022).
Furthermore, based on research, a framework for practicing introspection is suggested—although the Buddhist spiritual path is discussed in the framework, the practitioner is not required to be Buddhist or even spiritual (Hewawasam, 2022). Instead, it provides a path for a leader to learn the system of these eight steps as well as understand how mindfulness works in its full context and how he/she can use it in reality rather than superficially using the mindfulness concept alone.
Why the Supernormal Eightfold Way matters
As values play a substantial role in leadership when determining a leader’s effectiveness, harmonious perspective (Samma Ditthi), the first element of the Supernormal Eightfold Way, deals with the sense of values of a person by enabling one to acquire the understanding of becoming unselfish by becoming aware of the self-centeredness of every human being. Due to various reasons, humans have evolved to be self-centered in almost every aspect of life. The harmonious perspective allows people to experience a different perspective (a way of thinking) to eliminate self-centered thinking, feeling, and behavior. This first element establishes the foundation for a sense of values based on selflessness ultimately resulting in calmness of mind and relaxation of the body.
The research indicates that, through harmonious perspective, practitioners can become aware of whether they are living and behaving up to their values and whether their thoughts and decisions match with their values. Data shows the development of the sense of values within the participants after following the Supernormal Eightfold Way (Hewawasam, 2022). By adhering to values, one can be selfless—self-centered behavior originates from emotions, and people tend to be controlled by their emotions when making decisions (Hewawasam, 2022).
The original Buddhist teachings identify the pursuit of sensual pleasures as all human activity that is geared to fulfilling self-centered desires. Through harmonious perspective (Samma Ditthi), the practitioners realize that the tranquility of the mind is impaired by the pursuit of sensual pleasures. Achieving such tranquility of mind in the business world is not easy, one’s sense of values enables one to be aware of what is happening to oneself in a given situation (Hewawasam, 2022). When one goes into a fight or flight reaction due to agitation or anger, a person becomes aware of this when it happens through harmonious perspective. Harmonious perspective leads to harmonious orientation (Samma Sankappa) in which once a person reflects on what is happening to himself/herself, he/she admits that is his/her nature and what he/she will avoid/do in order to maintain the tranquility of mind. This is similar to taking a U-turn in one’s life and tranquility becomes one’s goal in life (Punnaji, 2021). For a leader, tranquility of mind is immensely valuable as it enables him/her to make logical and objective decisions without being burdened by emotional disturbances and biases.
Despite the obvious benefits of a tranquil mind, people are faced with numerous occasions that bring interference with it. As people experience unresolved frustrations that lead to worries and anxieties within and outside of the business world having one’s sense of values and daily reflections cleaning out one’s mind and removing the self-centered emotions are critical. Harmonious orientation (Samma Sankappa) in essence, is a visualization of the goal of tranquility as the most valuable in life. When a person has harmonious orientation, his/her behavior follows accordingly: his/her speech, action, and lifestyle become harmonious with the goal of tranquility (harmonious speech, harmonious action, and harmonious lifestyle). In harmonious lifestyle, the overall lifestyle becomes guided by the values, the fifth step of the Supernormal Eightfold Way (Hewawasam, 2022). In the sixth step, the harmonious exercise the practitioner removes unwholesome thoughts that originates in the mind from direct perception of the external world, memories, or imaginations and “harmonious exercise leads to a mental state where one’s attention naturally turns inward to observe what is happening inside—bodily changes, feelings, emotions, and thoughts” (Hewawasam, 2022). This behavioral change was observed in the research data (Hewawasam, 2022). This stage leads to the seventh step of the Supernormal Eightfold Way, harmonious attention (Samma Sati or Satipatthāna) or mindfulness. Harmonious attention allows one to move from emotionally disturbing thoughts such as the desire for sensual pleasures, hatred/anger, laziness/lethargy, agitation, and cognitive dissonance which are identified as hindrances (Nîvarana) in Buddhism. If one successfully removes these hindrances to clear thinking at least partially, he/she begins to enter harmonious equilibrium where unification of the mind and calmness are experienced (Punnaji, 2021).
Achieving harmonious equilibrium to a high degree requires substantial practice in seclusion over many years. However, a business leader who appreciates the Supernormal Eightfold Way can know this limitation yet try to practice the first seven steps ending in harmonious attention to one’s best ability and reap enormous benefits–a leader who is in touch with his/her inner state while dealing with the external world, one who is calm, cool, and has emotions under control in both personal and corporate settings.
As relaxation and calmness lead to a degree of mental equilibrium when one can think clearly and respond to problems effectively, an effective leader should find great value in them. Research shows that the practice of introspection develops cognitive skills / greater capacity for understanding (Hewawasam, 2022). Experiencing equilibrium at least to some extent is an indicator of whether proper mindfulness is practiced.
In order to continuously maintain relaxation and calmness through mindfulness, the six preceding steps of the Supernormal Eightfold Way are essential; however, mindfulness is not about always disciplining the mind, a common misconception (Hewawasam, 2022). For example, being mindful does not mean that the person who is washing dishes has to think, “Now I’m touching the water. And now I’m opening the tap.” (Hewawasam, 2022). What is needed is being calm and relaxed without forcing mindfulness or being present in the moment on oneself (Punnaji, 2021).
Another supplementary and essential aid to mindful living that is closely related to the Supernormal Eightfold Way: the practice of loving-kindness meditation (KLM) or more suitably translated loving-friendliness meditation (Hewawasam, 2022). Through this meditation, Mettā and Karunā are practiced, leading to strengthening one’s sense of values while being open-minded and avoiding the negative self-centeredness. This allows the practitioners to reach a stage where the mind is calm and relaxed, setting up the conditions needed for the practice of mindfulness. However, if the practice is started without the preliminary mental/behavioral states, the outcome of the practice will not be effective (Hewawasam, 2022).
Successful leaders need to be in a calm and relaxed state—without being angry and agitated, being tough, making all decisions, and thinking that his/her actions are always correct (Hewawasam, 2022). Through the proper form of mindfulness (introspection), a leader can have a clear and unbiased perspective on what is happening around him/her because he/she is aware of oneself, how his/her mind works, and how the body is reacting. This makes “looking within” the keyword in introspection. Practitioners should ask themselves, “Am I relaxed?” and “Am I calm?” (Hewawasam, 2022). Becoming calm and relaxed does not mean that one has to live in seclusion while separating oneself from everything. One can live a happy life while being conscious, calm, and relaxed, the state of mind referred to as Piti Manasa in Pali, which means “happy mind.”
Achieving this state of Piti Manasa does not require a long time since “once a person cleans up his/her mind (i.e., properly interpreting circumstances in a rational, realistic manner), as mentioned earlier, this can be experienced almost instantaneously” (Hewawasam, 2022). For corporate leaders, this can be highly appealing due to the dynamic nature of the business world that demands immediate results.
“The research indicates that, through harmonious perspective, practitioners can become aware of whether they are living and behaving up to their values and whether their thoughts and decisions match with their values.”
As it is no secret that the effectiveness of leadership can be a key determinant of the success of an organization, possessing relevant skills and capacities by those in leadership positions is tremendously important. In the recent times, organizations have been recognizing the significant positive effects the practice of mindfulness can have on one’s leadership skills and it is noted that organizations are investing substantial resources to facilitate the practice of mindfulness for their employees. While the mainstream practice of mindfulness can indeed bring benefits for leadership roles, it is only a part of the original practice of mindfulness (Hewawasam, 2022). A number of Western scholars have demonstrated the benefits of practicing the contemporary form of mindfulness, albeit with a limited and, in some instances, misguided understanding of the concept (Hewawasam, 2022). This shift in the understanding of the concept has been caused mainly due to mistranslation from Pali to English at the initial encounter with the concept of mindfulness of Buddhism in Sri Lanka in the 19th century by the British scholar T. W. Rhys Davids (1881, 1896, 1907), who introduced the concept to the Western world, and later by different interpretations by other parties based on their own mindsets. While the contemporary form of mindfulness can be beneficial, the original form of mindfulness which follows the Supernormal Eightfold Way found in early Buddhist teachings can deliver more wholesome benefits to the practitioners, enabling them to be supernormal leaders.
Research and methodology
Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of introspection through the Supernormal Eightfold Way—a research involving a 3-month introspection workshop for 26 individuals who held high-level leadership positions in local and global corporations and academia (Hewawasam, 2022). Following the action research methodology, the research collected feedback from the participants (who were “knowledge agents” considering their capability to explain their thoughts, intentions, and actions (Gioia, 2012)) after each session to evaluate the effects of the practice (Hewawasam, 2022).
Some of the feedback received from participants which were submitted as journal entries (participants are identified in codes to preserve confidentiality):
My insights have started revealing the degree of selflessness mindfulness is offering me. I think more and more of others with every passing week. My increasing self-awareness has made my self-management more effective as I chose to make others a priority in my life. I thought I was doing this prior to these sessions but I realize I was largely focused on myself – even as I helped/supported others. These exercises have created a significant change in the way I prioritize the needs of others through my thoughts and behaviors. I’ve realized that I had a lot more self-doubt than I realized. I worried a lot because I didn’t trust enough. I am learning to give trust more freely. I feel, though my reflection, that I was forcing people to earn my trust, versus being vulnerable and freely giving it. Pain or betrayal of one should not impact another. I am learning to separate situations and give more to others. I continue to be more calm. I continue to listen more. My relationships are improving and my brand at work is strengthening. People are noticing my pace and my focus on them. People are asking what is different and if my job has changed as I seem happier! Being a mindful leader means understanding how to truly support others. How my pace, my anxiety, my talking vs listening impacts those around me. It means managing my thoughts and behaviors to serve others as much, if not more, than myself. A mindful leader cares for others and manages thyself to serve others.
Incorporating the lessons from the monks who shared so kindly and openly with us. I think one of the first things I say the first thing that comes to mind to leaders is to not be afraid of compassion.” The participant continues to further explain “So there’s a heartbreaking concept that leaders need to be in charge in control, to not show weakness. And one of the ways that that is exhibited is by having an aversion to compassion starting with compassion for oneself, the level of unspoken subconscious demands that are so prevalent in people’s minds encourages this, this pattern of constantly, people and organizations, and project teams having to prove themselves. And I say this slowly because it really hurts my heart.
It’s hard to think about the future, if you really aren’t connected with today. So that’s sort of one part of the frame. The other Part of the frame for me is allowing, again, it gets back to allowing others in. Because I know what I know, or think I know. And I can try to extrapolate that forward. But it’s not it’s not easy. So I bring others in, and practice, it’s not necessarily formal appreciative inquiry, but really get people to probe and ask questions, right. So that, you know, we grow out of curiosity together.
The concept of mindfulness as per early Buddhist teachings is based on a more wholesome approach known as the Supernormal Eightfold Way, and the original form of mindfulness can be more aptly translated as “introspection”. The original form of mindfulness (loosely translated from Satipatthāna or Samma Sati) is only an element (the seventh) in the process of the Supernormal Eightfold Way which is prescribed in early Buddhist teachings to enable people to achieve absolute calmness by eliminating cognitive dissonance and be supernormal (Hewawasam, 2022). Although the practice of introspection is based on early Buddhist teachings, it is important to note that one does not need to be a Buddhist to be a practitioner and enjoy the benefits of the practice.
Supernormal Eightfold Way
- Harmonious perspective (Samma Ditthi)
- Harmonious orientation/visualization (Samma Sankappa)
- Harmonious speech (Samma Vaca)
- Harmonious action (Samma Kammanta)
- Harmonious lifestyle (Samma Ajiva)
- Harmonious exercise (Samma Vayama)
- Harmonious attention (Samma Sati) – mainstream translation being mindfulness
- Harmonious equilibrium (Samma Samadhi)
This process of introspection based on the Supernormal Eightfold Way begins with harmonious perspective, in which one focuses attention within oneself instead of on outside. This involves thinking, feeling, and acting (Punnaji, 2021). This perspective is a way of thinking, different from the ordinary while incorporating a harmonious relationship with the reality of impermanence (Anicca), discomfort/anxiety/dissatisfaction/suffering (Dukkha), and the impersonality (Anatta) of all experience (Hewawasam, 2022). In early Buddhist teachings, this is expressed as the understanding of the Four Supernormal Realities (commonly translated as the Four Noble Truths)—suffering, cause of suffering, cessation of suffering, and the way leading to the cessation of suffering. The perspective involved in harmonious perspective identifies the emotional urges (e.g., desire for sensual pleasure, anger/hatred, and the delusion of “self” which are accompanied by uncomfortable bodily changes such as muscle tension) as the root cause of suffering and that these emotional urges will be gradually reduced and finally eliminated by achieving harmonious equilibrium. Essentially, harmonious perspective recognizes that suffering is the cause of stress.
After one achieves harmonious perspective, he/she is led to harmonious orientation or harmonious visualization where one gradually reorients one’s thinking to renounce seeking sensual pleasures, hatred, and vengeance. This reorientation leads to selfless, rational, and responsible speech, action, and lifestyle (known as Sîla in Pali) which are reflected in the stages of harmonious speech, harmonious action, and harmonious lifestyle of the Supernormal Eightfold Way. With the gradual development of Sîla, practitioners of introspection reach the harmonious exercise (removal of unwholesome thoughts that arise in the mind from external or internal sources), and then to harmonious attention (mindfulness) in which one is able to move away from emotionally disturbing thoughts and cognitive dissonance. Effective leaders who advocate mindfulness in organizations will greatly benefit from understanding the path to mindfulness involved in introspection since it provides a comprehensive approach to develop leadership skills that will contribute to higher employee morale and productivity which will enhance the bottom line. Mindfulness has been recognized for its effectiveness in leadership throughout corporate America—for example, 22% of Fortune 500 companies had implemented mindfulness practices within the workplace in 2016 (Wieczner, 2016). So, following the comprehensive approach to it can result in organization-wide benefits.
While understanding the importance of introspection is crucial, one may also benefit from understanding the mechanism behind this approach. Introspection is a method of learning to relax the tension consciously instead of releasing tension in action—one does not have to release one’s tensions by indulging in desires, eliminating the undesirable, or escaping from unpleasantness or anxiety (Hewawasam, 2022). Instead, through introspection, one can become aware of these tensions and, thereby, learn to relax the tensions. When the tensions are relaxed, a person becomes comfortable and happy. And in that calm, relaxed state, thinking becomes free from being clouded by emotional baggage. Calm, rational, responsible decision-making can happen in such a state. This is the critical benefit of the practice of mindfulness that is grounded in all eight steps of the Supernormal Eightfold Way for business leaders. That is also the reason for the existence of stress management for teaching people how to relax. While there are various techniques of relaxation, physical relaxation alone is not sufficient to achieve the wholesome state of being relaxed. As long as the cognitive and affective aspects are present, the circumstances are interpreted in ways that arouse emotions. As a result, tension is sustained.
The goal of introspection is to be in a state where tension is successfully removed and relaxation is sustained—i.e., harmonious equilibrium. This is a key aspect of maintaining wellness (physical, mental, social, and spiritual). As data shows, being in the state of harmonious equilibrium in leadership can have substantial benefits for the self, employees, and the overall organization. In order to achieve that state, it is essential to follow the Supernormal Eightfold Way as per the early Buddhist teachings, as it was observed within the participants whose leadership skills improved after completing the workshop, by covering the seven steps—not only the seventh step—of the Supernormal Eightfold Way.
As with almost any practice, mere knowledge of what it is does not suffice for successful practice of introspection. Cultivating the Supernormal Eightfold Way, which is the basis of the practice of introspection is accomplished in the original form of Buddhism through meditation (Hewawasam, 2022). A Buddhist meditator (based on original teachings) practices all eight steps of the Supernormal Eightfold Way to develop his/her consciousness to the highest possible level. This has been demonstrated by the four monks who conducted the workshop that was involved the research mentioned earlier. These four monks have cultivated the Supernormal Eightfold Way through meditation for more than X years. However, in the contemporary form of mindfulness, as noted earlier, the process of reaching calmness (harmonious equilibrium) starts with Satipatthāna. Most of the scholars on mindfulness, including Kabat Zinn (1994, 2003, 2015) and Langer (1989, 1992, 2000, 2014), have focused mainly on the seventh step of the Supernormal Eightfold Way when conducting research (Hewawasam, 2022). In order to achieve the eighth step, harmonious equilibrium, where overall calmness is reached, all seven steps are necessary as the research has demonstrated (Hewawasam, 2022).
The practice of achieving harmonious equilibrium through Satipatthāna and the other six steps was demonstrated in the workshop with participants from leadership positions with the help of four Buddhist monks in advanced stages of introspection (Hewawasam, 2022). This was not a mystical practice, and no religious aspects were involved. It was a practice of Satipatthāna and all previous steps of the Supernormal Eightfold Way for leaders who were living normal lives (and belonging to different faiths). As baseline data collected at the beginning of the research workshop showed, these participants needed to alleviate stress, worries, and anxieties of life and they were eager to enjoy peace of mind, healthy relationships, self-confidence, success in life, and efficiency at work. To them, this practice was about learning to gain control over the emotional disturbances that prevented them from thinking clearly or acting rationally. The early Buddhist meditation they experienced in the workshop by four Buddhist monks had helped the participants to free their minds of emotional disturbances and to think clearly and act rationally, which was evidenced by the participants’ journals. The workshop involved a systematic approach to consciously purifying the mind from impurities that arise from self-centered emotional states. When the mind is purified, inner happiness, physical comfort, kindness, and compassion are experienced to a great degree (Punnaji, 2021). The term “happiness” referred to in this case is not a state of emotional excitement but a tranquil and undisturbed state of mind, which is called “Piti Mannassa” in Pali. (Punnaji, 2021). Also, the abovementioned kindness and compassion are not based on attachment but on a state of unselfishness as opposed to emotional excitement. Therefore, happiness and kindness are attributes of the pure and tranquil mind (Punnaji, 2021).
Based on the data collected, the research has shown that the workshop on the original form of mindfulness had aided the participants to purify the mind and relax the body resulting in happiness, kindness, and mature intelligence. Since purification of the mind requires restraining one’s behavior in the form of discipline, which includes harmonious speech, action, and lifestyle, starting from step one of the eight-step Supernormal Eightfold Way is crucial in order to establish calmness, harmonious equilibrium, that can elevate a leader to be supernormal.
How Does Mindfulness with Clear Comprehension from the Early Teachings of the Buddha Cultivate Wisdom?
As the concept of mindfulness is understood from multiple perspectives, many practitioners of it are still attempting to clearly define it. The word “mindfulness” is originated from a Pali-English dictionary published in 1882 by Rhys Davids, a British scholar, as the translation of the Pali word satipatthāna. Davids studied the Buddha’s teachings in Sri Lanka while it was a British colony, and its primary language was not English. Rhys Davids can be commended for his excellent efforts in introducing the Buddha’s teachings to the Western world. However, the word “mindfulness” has been erroneously assigned to mean satipatthāna, and the necessity for clarifying its actual meaning and adopting a more suitable term for it has risen.
Satipatthāna, which has been commonly translated as “mindfulness” has three sub-words contained in it: sati (attention/awareness/alertness), upa (inside), and thana (to place). Considering the meanings of these sub-words that make up the term satipatthāna, the more suitable English term for it is “introspection” (not mindfulness). In an age where people’s minds are filled with various kinds of information, the original practice of mindfulness (i.e., introspection) aids emptying people’s minds. With the five senses, humans are reacting to the world, instead of reacting with it; therefore, people are in need of bringing the attention inside.
According to the Buddha’s teachings that introduce the practice of introspection, there are no two elements called the body and the mind. Historically, Western philosophers have presented multiple views on the relationship between the mind and the body. John Lock, who introduced materialism, said that the mind does not exist but the result of the body and the nervous system along with the activities of the brain is called the mind. George Berkley, the Christian bishop who introduced idealism, said that only the mind exists because one understands matter that Lock was describing only through one’s senses. David Hume, who introduced phenomenology, said that both Lock and Berkley were only partially correct regarding the mind and the body—he said that only the experiences of the senses (smelling, tasting, hearing, seeing, touching, and thinking) exist. The position Hume held is the same that the Buddha took approximately 2,500 years earlier.
The Buddha’s view on the mind included three aspects, namely vinnana (perception), mano (intellect), and chitta (emotion). This view is similar to the view by Sigmund Freud, which involved id (emotion) and ego (intellect) and the more recent view by Leon Festinger, which was named cognitive dissonance where one’s emotion and intellect diverge and result in stress. In the Buddha’s teachings, cognitive dissonance is called vichikichcha (in Pali).
To understand introspection clearly, one has to consider a modern concept—an organism.
An organism is similar to a machine and the body of a human being works like a machine. For example, breathing, eating, and heart beating are activities. As the senses of a human being are stimulated by the environment, the human being reacts to stimulations. Ergo, organisms are reacting to stimulations. According to the Buddha’s teachings, this reaction is what is called the mind.
The first part of the reaction is the perception, i.e., eye perception, ear perception, tongue perception, nose perception, and body perception (sensory activity). Perception includes sensory activities such as seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching. After perception, the act of thinking takes place—activity of the brain, also known as the cerebral cortex. the Buddha called it mano and Freud called it ego.
For example, when light falls on the eye, the light stimulates the eye, a reaction, seeing, takes place. Similarly, when sounds enter one’s ears, it stimulates the ear, and the reaction of the organism results in hearing. This reaction is what is called the mind in the Buddha’s teachings.
On the other hand, when one opens his/her eyes and sees something, seeing is the perception and the interpretation of what is seen is the intellect. For example, if one becomes angry by seeing an unethical or immoral action by someone. That is the intellectual aspect based on the interpretation of what has been seen (the perceptual aspect). This intellectual aspect is the mano element mentioned above.
After the interpretation in the above example, a message is sent to the glands, (e.g.: the adrenal gland) hormones are released and the organism experiences anger. The arousal of anger, i.e., change taking place in the body, is the “emotion” that the Buddha called chitta and Freud called id.
In stress management courses, learners are taught that tension remains if it is not released. Unreleased tension is stress. In the modern world, people cannot release tension the way they wish. To get rid of tension, one needs to be conscious of oneself and experience conscious relaxation. Becoming conscious of oneself is the satipatthāna which is commonly translated as “mindfulness.” It is necessary for one to train oneself to gain control over emotions. The technique for gaining this control is the satipatthāna (introspection).
In 2021 a guided mindfulness (introspection) workshop as a part of a doctoral research (following the action research methodology and the Gioia method) was conducted over three months for 22 participants. These participants held leadership positions in various organizations, including Fortune 100 and Fortune 500 companies. The workshop was guided by four Buddhist monks to facilitate the practice. The workshop ensured religious neutrality (i.e., keeping religious aspects of Buddhism) and focused on meditation practices and the original form of mindfulness (satipatthāna). The participants, who were considered knowledge agents (according to the Gioia method), maintained journals and participated in personal interviews to provide data on their experience of the practice.
By analyzing the data collected according to the Gioia method, 157 first-order themes and then 16 second-order themes were derived. Those themes were further analyzed to obtain 4 aggregate dimensions that connected with the Supernormal Eightfold Way, the key mechanism involved in the practice of introspection:
1. Sense of values (relates to Harmonious Perspective)
2. Deeper capacity for empathy (relates to Harmonious Perspective)
3. Value-driven behavioral change (relates to Harmonious Orientation)
4. Greater capacity for understanding (relates to Harmonious Attention)
Harmonious Perspective, Harmonious Orientation, and Harmonious Attention are three of the eight steps in the Supernormal Eightfold Way
This research involving the workshop demonstrated that there are more steps one needs to pass before effectively reaching mindfulness which is the seventh step of the Supernormal Eightfold Way.
As some people have indicated, today many concerns are raised about the practice of mindfulness found in the Western world. The negative effects some people claim to be associated with the practice are a result of the Western practice ignoring the first six steps involved in the original practice and simply following only the 7th step of the 8-step process.
A summary of the original practice of mindfulness (satipatthāna)
Organisms are experiencing the world through the five senses (the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, and the body). When the focus is on the perceptions, reactions take place. Organisms react positively to pleasant stimulations, and they react negatively to unpleasant stimulations, resulting in reacting only instead of calming the mind.
Therefore, it is necessary to learn to take one’s attention away from what is seen, heard, smelled, tested, and touched and turn the mind inwards. Turning the mind inwards is called introspection (not mindfulness).
When turning attention inward, there are four aspects to consider:
1.Looking at the body using the mind (instead of eyes)
When one focuses attention on the body, moments and tension are observed.
For example, if one opens his/her eyes and looks at something, the body will begin to move if it is something pleasant. Noticing what happens to the body not by looking with eyes but with the mind is an important aspect of the practice of introspection.
It is necessary to notice how the body feels—whether it is comfortable or uncomfortable. That means if there is tension in the body, it becomes uncomfortable and if the body is relaxed, it is comfortable.
Noticing whether the emotions are excited or not is essential. For example, if one is angry, one can observe it in his/her body. Regardless of the emotional agitation, by closing one’s eyes, he/she can become aware inside. Being aware of one’s mood is crucial.
4. Focusing on the thoughts in the mind
Focusing on what one is thinking and the kind of thoughts in one’s mind is important. For example, one should think about whether he/she is thinking of what happened on the previous day, what is going to happen the following day, or what is happening at the present.
In the modern world, almost everyone experiences stress every day. Leon Festinger referred to it as cognitive dissonance and the Buddha called it vichikichcha. This occurs when people’s emotions and intellect diverge. the Buddha offered a solution for this divergence, and he called it samadhi (cognitive consonance), a state where the emotions and the intellect are unified in the mind. The technique to unify one’s mind or reduce stress is the 8-step Supernormal Eightfold Way, in which mindfulness is only the 7th step.